Even for individuals who accept the reality of psi ability, the question of its practical applications remains controversial. Can these powers be used for detrimental purposes? What are the limits of psychic ability? Can psychic abilities be brought under institutional or government control? Are we opening another Pandora's Box?
It is difficult to answer these questions based on the scant amount of solid, scientific evidence we have so far accumulated. Certainly more inferences can be obtained by drawing upon the history, the literature, and the folk-wisdom of psi.
Many fields of human endeavor today include both a scientific/scholarly branch and a branch devoted to practical application. Examples include education, physics, psychology, music, drama, agriculture, sociology, political science, genetics, chemistry, rhetoric and athletics. In fact, in each case, the practical applications of a discipline preceded the science and scholarship. Certainly the same is also true of psi research. Folklore and history suggest that the practical application of psi abilities is a major interest of shamanism -- one of the world's oldest professions. I sometimes use the term "psionics," taken from the science fiction literature, to describe the applied branch of psi exploration.
Some psi researchers and other scientists
have been known to argue that there really is no proper applied branch
of psi exploration.,, Some say that psi cannot be applied until its existence
has been proven to the scientific community. Others, who accept the scientific
proofs of psi's existence, argue that it cannot be applied because experimental
tests have shown it to be too weak and unreliable. Still others argue that,
even if psi is not always reliable, it cannot compete in effectiveness
with the technology of today's modern world. Furthermore, in a real-life
setting, there is no way to properly distinguish genuine psi functioning
from other possible interpretations. If psi exists, its practical application
in a consistent, reliable manner still awaits many future developments.
Nevertheless there are some potentially promising beginnings.
Casino Gambling Simulation
Researchers attempting to apply ESP to casino gambling have hoped that eventually they might be able to use psi-missing to their advantage. In a series of studies reported by Robert Brie and Walter Tyminski several statistical techniques were used to apply ESP choices to gaming. One of these was the majority-vote technique.
Suppose, for example, we know a given subject can consistently score 52% on an ESP test where chance expectation is 50%. Although such scoring can be extremely significant over several thousand trials, there are many situations where one could not afford to be wrong 48% of the time. In this situation, scores can be strengthened, although the procedure is somewhat slower. Suppose we make ten guesses of each target instead of one; then we determine our final guess using the majority vote of those ten guesses. This is essentially the same repetition principle a radio-communications engineer uses when a signal is obscured by noise. If we made a thousand guesses at the target, with 52% ESP chances are very high a majority-vote would yield the correct answer-unless one's ESP were working in a negative direction.
Working with actual casino games as their targets, Brier and Tyminski utilized a majority-vote technique so bets were determined by the vote of five different guesses. Furthermore, they divided the gambling situation into test-runs and play- runs. The guesses were made well in advance of the betting situation and were recorded carefully on scoring sheets. During the test-runs of twenty-five bets, the experimenters calculated whether the subject was psi-hitting or psi-missing. If the subject was showing positive psi, the play-run bets were predicted according to the regular majority vote. However, if negative-psi was indicated, the play-run bets were then predicted in the opposite direction of the majority vote. If scores in the test-run were close to chance, no attempt was made to predict the playrun bets.
This technique proved remarkably successful, from an experimental point of view, in the six test situations reported. Its promise of psi applications seems very encouraging. However, readers are not encouraged to rush out and try to apply this technique right away. The statistical procedures can be quite complex, particularly when one takes into account position effects and scoring declines. Attention must also be paid to creating a psychological atmosphere for the subject conducive to ESP testing.
James Carpenter's experiment resulted in the successful identification of the binary (Morse) code equivalent to the word "PEACE." Later, Puthoff et al. reported encouraging results based on a more efficient statistical averaging procedure.
In one series of studies, Robert Mihalsky and E. Douglas Dean looked at company presidents who had doubled their company's profits during the last five years. They found these individuals scored much higher in the precognitive tests than other executives. In fact, the ESP test seemed to be a much better indicator of executive success than other personality measurements.
Given the challenge of applying remote viewing protocols to practical ends, Harold Puthoff worked with a group of parents hoping to raise money for an alternative school for their children.
They undertook a 30-trial series in which remote viewing was used to predict the daily outcomes of a commodities market variable (which was then successfully traded in the market).
The technique employed was an ARV (associational remote viewing) procedure. In this method several remote viewers were asked to describe (free-response) a target object to be shown them at the close of the following day, the selection of that object to be determined by that day's market activity (e.g., if market up, an apple; if down, a pencil). The task of the remote viewing judge is to determine from the viewers'transcripts the likely feedback object, and hence (in advance) the associated market movement. The sequence in detail was: (a) remote viewers generate transcripts; (b) without reference to the transcripts, two objects are selected and labeled (by use of a random number generator) market-up, market-down objects; (c) a judge determines a consensus vote as to which of the two objects is being described (and the associated market-movement prediction is passed on to a trader); (d) at the close of the following market day the actual "ground-truth" market-movement object is shown the viewers for feedback, closing the loop.
Seven parents interested in raising funds for the school volunteered as remote viewers. After an evening's instruction on the SRI remote viewing protocols, a series was begun. The number of remote viewing trials per person over the entire series ranged from a maximum of 36 (six pilot, 30 market trials) to a minimum of twelve. Consensus judging yielded a result of 21/30 (70.0%), significant at p < 2.2 x 10-2, and a series of profits/losses at about $1,000 - $2,000/trial, netting more than $25,000 profit for the entire series.
In a second series, using the same formal
method, when they were trying to make money for themselves, Puthoff and
his colleagues were unsuccessful.
Bernard Grad's Research at McGill University
In 1959, a Canadian researcher, Dr. Bernard Grad, was introduced to a Hungarian refugee named Oskar Estebany who claimed that some form of healing energy emanated from his hands. Estebany had been a cavalry officer in the Hungarian army before the 1956 uprising and originally discovered his healing abilities in treating the army horses. In a series of ingenious experiments with Estebany, Grad provided the scientific foundation for the existence of psychic healing.
His first experiments were with laboratory mice whose backs had been deliberately wounded by carefully removing an area of skin. The areas of these wounds were measured over an eighteen day healing period.
Wound size in mice immediately
after removing a portion of the skin. The middle
The treatment consisted of Mr. Estebany's holding the caged mice between his hands for twenty minutes twice daily. One control group received similar handling from medical students who did not claim to have unusual healing ability, while the mice in another control group simply remained in their cages without handling at all. The experiment was carefully controlled so that the individuals who cared for the mice and measured their wounds did not know which of the test groups they were in. A total of 300 mice were used in one experiment, which was eventually published after several pilot studies. This experiment showed significantly faster wound healing in the mice treated by Mr. Estebany. It was difficult to maintain that the mice were susceptible to the power of suggestion. Rather the experimenters felt that there was some sort of healing emanations coming from Estebany's hands.
In his next experiment, Grad used barley seeds which were treated with a saline solution. Sterile and sealed in bottles under vacuum the solution was normally used for intravenous infusion of humans. The healer merely held one sealed bottle in his hands for thirty minutes. A control bottle of solution was not "healed." The seeds were soaked in the solution and allowed to dry for 48 hours. Then they were baked in an oven just long enough to injure, but not kill them. Twenty seeds were planted in each of twenty-four pots-with identical soil, temperature, and humidity conditions. During the test period no person knew which seeds had been given the treated water. Estebany himself had no contact with the barley seeds. However, after the conclusion of the experiment it was found that those pots with seeds which had been watered from the bottles treated by the healer had more plants growing in them and the plants were also taller.
In a third experiment, Grad attempted to determine if he could get effects from other subjects. In fact, he hypothesized that if a psychic healer could cause greater plant growth, perhaps treatment by psychiatric patients would inhibit growth. A similar experimental technique was used with three subjects. One of these was psychiatrically normal, the second was a hospitalized depressed neurotic, and the third a hospitalized depressed psychotic patient. A control group of plants received no treatment at all. The results of this experiment were very intriguing. The plants treated with the solution held by the normal subject showed greater growth than either the control or the depressed subjects. This effect was statistically significant and the "normal" subject also claimed to feel some sort of flow through his hands during the experiment. One of the depressed subjects was so amused with the experiment that her mood picked up as soon as she was asked to hold the bottle of saline solution. Her plants rew consistently, but not significantly larger than the control plants. The third subject stayed in an unhappy mood throughout the experiment. The seeds treated from the bottle of solution which she held showed less growth than the untreated control group. This effect was small in Grad's experiment, but we will see that it has been confirmed by other studies.
Another experiment was performed testing the effect of healing on the rate at which thyroid goiters developed in mice whose diet was deficient in iodine and contained thiouracil. It was found that mice in cages held for two fifteen-minute periods each day by the psychic Estebany developed goiters at a slower rate and recovered from them at a faster rate than mice in the control group, which were given the same amount of warmth as that produced by the healer's hands.
Critics have faulted Grad's studies as
well as other work in the area of ostensible psychic healing for two primary
reasons. Studies did not adequately shield for the possibility of conventional
physical influences (i.e., heat and electromagnetic radiation). Also, researchers
measuring the results were often not blind as to which animals were in
the test condition and which were controls.
Conceptual Replications of Grad's Research
One experiment examined the healing effect on wounds that were surgically administered on human subjects by a medical doctor using a skin biopsy instrument and local anaesthetic. This procedure created a relatively consistent wound size upon incision for all subjects.
This study eliminated the influence of suggestion and the expectation of healing, as well as the placebo effect, by utilizing a double blind design. Neither the doctor nor the laboratory technician knew whether any particular subject was in the experimental or control group. In fact, none of these individuals even were informed, until after the data had been collected, that this experiment was a test of psychic healing. A special laboratory had been constructed which kept the healing practitioner separated from all other experimental personnel, including the subjects themselves, who simply placed their arms through a hole in the wall of the laboratory room. They were told that the study was designed to measure electrical conductivity of the body. The noncontact healing treatments lasted for five minutes each day, for sixteen days. The healing practitioner was located behind the wall through which the subjects placed their arms. Circumstances were exactly the same for both treatment and control groups with the exception that the healing practitioner was not present during the sessions with control subjects.
After sixteen days, thirteen of the 23 "treatment" group subjects were completely healed -- whereas none of the "nontreatment" group subjects were completely healed on this day. Statistical differences in wound size between the healing and control group were significant when measurements were made on both the eighth and sixteenth days after the original wounds.
After the statistical analysis had been completed, the experimenter interviewed the subjects, the healing practitioner, the medical doctor and the laboratory technician independently. These interviews confirmed that almost all essential experimental protocols were maintained throughout the study.
Although this is one of the best healing studies on record, it may be faulted on several grounds. The experimental protocols were violated when the healing practitioner was unable to schedule afternoon sessions. Thus all of the experimental subjects were scheduled in the morning, while control subjects were scheduled in the afternoon. While it is unlikely that the time of treatment, in itself, would have produced a differential healing effect, a significant difference still exists insofar as there was no human being near the arm of the control subjects during the supposed treatment period. Thus, there was no effective experimental control for effects such as electromagnetic radiation that may have emanated from the healing practitioner. While one may claim that a non-contact therapeutic touch (NCTT) effect was observed, there is no reason to assume that this was a psychhokinetic effect as opposed to one that might be explainable in terms of conventional physical interactions.
Carroll B. Nash, who directed the Parapsychology Laboratory at St. Joseph's College in Philadelphia, performed an experiment with 19 psychotics in which each held a bottle of glucose solution. When poured on suspensions of yeast cells the solutions were found to have a slight inhibiting effect on the growth of this organism as compared with controls in which the glucose had not been subjected to treatment.
The demonstrated existence of effects caused by the laying on of hands still left unanswered many questions regarding the mechanisms of this phenomenon. What is it about the hands of a healer that can affect wound healing or plant growth?
This question was on the mind of the biochemist, Sister Justa M. Smith, who, in 1970, invited Mr. Estebany to her laboratory at Rosary Hill College in Buffalo, New York. Sister Smith's research had focused on enzymes-large protein molecules which act as catalysts, speeding up biochemical reactions such as those associated with wound healing and growth of tissue. Her research had shown that the reactivity of enzymes, which were treated by a strong magnetic field, was increased; and she wondered if Estebany's hands might imitate this effect.
In her laboratory, Estebany held sealed test tubes of enzymes in his hands while her assistants tested their reactivity every fifteen minutes, using an infrared spectrophotometer. They found that the enzymes behaved as if they had been exposed to a magnetic field of 13,000 gauss. This is a very strong field when one considers that the magnetic field of the earth is only about one-half of a gauss. Further testing with a magnetometer, however, revealed that there was no unusual magnetic field around Estebany's hands.
In another experiment with Mr. Estebany, Dolores Krieger, a nursing instructor at New York University, measured the hemoglobin levels of 16 patients who were treated with laying-on-of-hands for fifteen minutes three times daily. Over a six day period, the patients showed an average increase of 1.2 gm. of hemoglobin per 100 cc. of blood. There was no increase in the level of patients who did not receive the healing treatment.
Further testing of the water treated by Mr. Estebany showed distinct spectrophotometric differences from untreated water. Bernard Grad passed infra-red light through both experimental and control saline solutions and revealed a difference in percent transmission between 2,800 and 3,000 millimicrons. But he called it an error since the region was outside the instrument's specifications.
Douglas Dean, as reported in his 1983 doctoral dissertation research at the Saybrook Institute, replicated this observation on an instrument designed for that particular region of infra-red.
Dean used a double-blind study and tested the healer, Olga Worrall, holding distilled water bottles for 5, 15, and 30 minutes. Larger 2,700 millimicron infra-red bands appeared with longer time of holding. Dean also replicated these results in London at Kings College with healer Rose Gladden.
Hand-held and imagining "higher consciousness" gave a large band, whereas imagining "magnetizing" gave control values. Boiling the healer-treated water to steam and condensing it back to water seemed not to boil the healer effect out.
In a study conducted by Stephan Schwartz, et al. of the Mobius Society in Los Angeles, fourteen practitioners were tested -- each of whom employed a personal variation of the Laying-on-of-Hands/Therapeutic Touch processes. Through standard techniques of infrared spectrophotometry, sterile water samples in randomly selected vials evidence alteration of infrared (IR) spectra after being proximate to the palms of the hands of practitioners. A variation in the spectra of all treated samples compared with all control samples was observed in the 2.5 - 3.0 micrometer range, as predicted.
Environmental factors including temperature, barometric pressure, and variations dependent on sampling order, do not appear to explain the the observed infra-red spectrum alteration.
A series of experiments in psychic healing was conducted by Graham and Anita Watkins at the Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man in Durham, North Carolina, who attempted to find out whether psychics could be able to cause mice to awaken more quickly from ether anesthesia than would normally be expected. Altogether thirteen different subjects were used for this experiment. Three of these subjects were members of the laboratory staff who claimed no special healing ability or significant psychokinetic ability in general. The remaining ten subjects had either claimed to have healing abilities or had performed well on a psychokinetic test under controlled laboratory conditions. In some of the experiments, the subjects were in the same room with the mice they were attempting to revive. In another experiment, the mice were in one room and the subject was in an adjoining room viewing them through a one way glass.
The results of this experiment were highly significant overall. Thirty-two runs were performed with twenty-four trials in each run. In each trial the subject was presented a mouse to revive, and a �ontrol mouse which was simultaneously anesthetized. The control mice averaged 30.43 seconds and the experimentals 25.36 seconds to revive from the ether. The probability that this result was due to chance is less than one in a million. Only one of the talented subjects scored at a chance level as did all three of the laboratory staff. The nine remaining talented subjects scored extremely well.
One unusual finding of this experiment was that the subjects failed to produce a significant effect when they were assigned a random target series instead of using one target location (right or left) throughout a half run of twelve trials. This apparent failure could be explained, however, if the psychic effect which was causing the accelerated waking of the mice did not immediately dissipate when the subject ceased to concentrate, but rather lingered on for a certain period of time. This was suggested to the experimenters by the fact that when the subjects were asked to change target sides at the end of a half run, approximately thirty minutes was required between halves to insure a successful second half. This was seen in a number of preliminary runs in which this interval was varied between five minutes and an hour.
To test this hypothesis, the Watkins conducted another experiment in which the subject was asked to leave the building upon completing the first half run, and the second half began immediately with a pair of mice being placed on the table as though the healer were still present in the adjoining room. In this experiment, the mice on the side of the table that had previously been the target side continued to revive faster -- even though no healer was concentrating on them. This "linger effect" was found to be at least as reliable as the main healing effect.
A replication of this study was conducted
by Roger Wells and Judith Klein using four "healers." Eight experiments,
each consisting of 24 trials, were conducted. Seven of the eight were in
the expected direction, one being independently significant with a chance
probability level less than one in a hundred. There was an average difference
of 5.52 seconds between the time the experimental mice awoke and the time
the control mice awoke. Of the total 192 trials, 110 were hits.
The Transpersonal Imagery Effect
Researchers in psychoneuroimmunology have
determined that individuals can use mental imagery to influence their own
physiological states. This process is sometimes called preverbal imagery.
William Braud and Marilyn Schlitz, of the Mind Science Foundation in San
Antonio, Texas, recently reported on a series of studies attempting to
assess whether one can use mental imagery to influence the physiological
state of another person at a distant location.
This process is referred to as transpersonal imagery, a concept which, as defined by psychologist Jean Achterberg, "embodies the assumption that information can be transmitted from the consciousness of one person to the physical substrate of others."
Braud and Schlitz developed an objective, quantitative methodology for the study of transpersonal imagery within the framework of experimental psychology. In a typical experiment, Person A (the influencer) was instructed to use mental imagery in order to induce physiological changes in Person B (the subject), who was isolated in a distant room. The expected physiological effect was assessed by measuring the spontaneous electrical skin resistance responses of person B. During some experimental sessions, Person A was instructed to produce imagery, during 30-second recording "epochs," for increased relaxation in Person B. In other sessions, the mental imagery from Person A was directed toward arousal. At other specified moments in time, according to a random pattern, person A was asked to refrain from generating any relevant imagery. Some experimental sessions included sequences with both calming and arousing influence, as well as control periods.
The distance (20 meters or more) between the two rooms used in an experiment, and the presence of several intervening closed doors and corridors, isolated the participants from possible sensory interaction. Additionally, verbalization of any information regarding the imagery/nonimagery schedule by the influencer or the experimenter was not allowed during the experimental sessions. There were no active microphones in either room through which participants could communicate. The headphones through which the participants in the two rooms received required auditory information were attached to independent electrical circuits so that possible "crosstalk" between two sets of headphones was eliminated (i.e., it was impossible for one person's headphone to function as a microphone for the other person's headset).
Throughout an experimental session, the subject sat in a comfortable airchair in a dimly illuminated, closed room. The subject was instructed to make no deliberate effort to relax or become more active, but rather to remain in as ordinary a condition as possible and to be open to and accepting of a possible influence from the distant influencer whom he or she had already met. The subject remained unaware of the number, timing or scheduling of the various influence attempts, and was instructed not to try to guess consciously when influence attempts might be made. The subject was asked to allow his or her thought processes to be as variable or random as possible and to simply observe the various thoughts, images, sensations, and feelings that came to mind without attempting to control, force, or cling to any of them.
The influencer sat in a comfortable chair in front of a polygraph in another closed room. The polygraph provided a graphic analog readout of the concurrent electrodermal activity of the distant subject. Each change in imagery was signaled to the influencer by an auditory signal that could not be heard by the distant subject. Immediately before each signal, the experimenter exposed a card to the influencer containing an instruction for the upcoming recording "epoch." During control periods, the influencer attempted not to think about the subject or about the experiment, and to think of other matters. During influence periods, the influencer used the following strategies (either alone or in combination) in an attempt to influence the somatic activity of the distant subject.
1. The influencer used imagery and self-regulation techniques in order to induce the intended condition in himself or herself, and imagined a corresponding change in the distant subject.
2. The influencer imagined the other person in appropriate relaxing or activating settings.
3. The influencer imaged the desired outcomes of the polygraph pen tracings -- i.e., imagined few and small pen deflections for calming periods and many and large deflection for activation periods.
There were rest periods, ranging in duration from 15 seconds to 2 minutes in the various experiments, between the 30-second recording epochs. During those periods, the influencer was able to rest and to prepare for the upcoming epoch.
In order to eliminate the possible influence of common internal rhythms and to remove the possibility that the influencer and the subject just happened to respond at whim in the same manner and at the same times, it was necessary to formally assign to the influencer specific times for engaging in imagery; such assignments had to be truly random and, of course, could not be known to the subject (lest the subject self-regulate his or her own physiology on the basis of such knowledge, in order to confirm the expectations of the experimenter).
Evaluation of whether the influencer's imagery influenced the subject's somatic activity was carried out on a session-by-session basis, and involved a determination of the proportion of somatic activity in the prescribed direction which occurred during the influence periods, relative to its occurrence during control periods.
The experimental design guaranteed that the effect could not be attributed to conventional sensorimotor cues, common external stimuli, common internal rhythms, or chance coincidence. Polygraph readings were scored on a blind basis and were eventually computer-automated in order to prevent recording errors or "motivated misreadings" of the records.
The subjects were not told when or how many influence attempts would be made, nor was the experimenter aware of the influence/control epoch until all preliminary interactions with the subject had ben completed.
Additional experimental precautions were taken to prevent progressive (time-based) errors. Equipment was allowed to warm up for 15 to 20 minutes prior to the beginning of a session and therefore had become thermally stable before the experiment began. The use of randomly counterbalanced design prevented any possible progressive effects from contributing differentially ito influence versus control epochs.
In all, 337 persons participated in these experiments -- 271 served as subjects, 62 as influencers, and 4 as experimenters.
The subjects and influencers were unselected volunteers with no apparent motive for trickery. However, even if a subject were motivated to cheat, such an opportunity was not present. Cheating would have required knowledge of the session's influence/control epoch sequence and of the precise starting time for the session. These requirements were eliminated.
Braud and Schlitz concluded, based upon overall statistical results of thirteen experiments, that the transpersonal imagery effect is a relatively reliable and robust phenomenon. In fact, under certain conditions, the magnitude of the transpersonal imagery effect compared faborably with the magnitudes reported for self-regulation effect. The ability to manifest the effect is apparently widely distributed in the population. Sensitivity to the effects appeared to be normally distributed among the 271 volunteer subjects tested in these experiments.
In addition to responding physiologically in a manner consistent with the imagery of the distant influencer, subjects often reported subjective responses which correspond to the influencer's images. Sometimes these reports were of relatively vague feelings of relaxation or activation. However, there were also reports of extremely specific thoughts, feelings, and sensations which strikingly matched the imagery employed by the influencer. For example, a subject reported spontaneously that during the session he had a very vivid impression of the influencer coming into his room, walking behind his chair, and vigorously shaking the chair; the impression was so strong that he found it difficult to believe that the event had not happened in reality. This session was one in which the influencer had employed just such an image in order to activate the subject from afar.
Subjects sometimes spontaneously reported
mentation which corresponded closely to that of the influencer or the experimenter,
even when that mentation was incidental and not employed consciously as
part of an influence strategy. For example, at the beginning of one session,
the experimnter remarked to an influencer that the electrodermal tracings
of the subject were very precise and regimented and that they reminded
him of the German techno-pop instrumental musical group, Kraftwerk. When
the experimenter went to the subject's room at the end of the session,
the subject's first comment was that early in the session, for some unknown
reason, thoughts of the group Kraftwerk had come into her mind. The subject
could not have overheard the experimenter's earlier comment to the influencer.
Such correspondences were not rare.
. Loyd M. Auerbach, "Psi-fi: Psi in Science Fiction," Applied Psi, Spring 1984, pp. 3-4.
. Andrew Neher, "Comments on 'The Schism within Parapsychology' by Jeffrey Mishlove," Zetetic Scholar, 8, 1981, 94-96.
. Gertrude Schmeidler, "Comments on 'The Schism within Parapsychology' by Jeffrey Mishlove," Zetetic Scholar, 8, 1981, 99-102.
. Robert A. McConnell, Private correspondence. January 1981.
. Robert Brier and Walter V. Tyminski, "Psi Application," in Joseph Banks Rhine (ed.), Progress in Parapsychology. Durham, N.C.: Parapsychology Press, 1973.
. J. C. Carpenter. Toward the Effective Utilization of Enhanced Weak-Signal ESP Effects. Paper presented at the Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, New York, NY, January 1975.
. Harold E. Puthoff, Edwin C. May & M. J. Thomson. "Calculator-Assisted Psi Amplification II: Use of the Sequential-Sampling Technique as a Variable-Length Majority Vote Code," in D. H. Weiner & D. I. Radin (eds.), Research in Parapsychology 1985. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1986, pp. 73-76.
. Harold E. Puthoff, "ARV (Associational Remote Viewing) Applications," in Research in Parapsychology 1984. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1985.
. Bernard Grad, R. J. Cadoret, & G. I. Paul, "The Influence of an Unorthodox Method of Treatment on Wound Healing of Mice," International Journal of Parapsychology, 3, 1961, 5-24.
. Bernard Grad, "A Telekinetic Effect on Plant Growth," International Journal of Parapsychology, 6, 1964, 473.
. Bernard Grad, "The 'Laying on of Hands': Implications for Psychotherapy, Gentling, and the Placebo Effect," Journal of The American Society for Psychical Research, 61(4), October 1967, 286-305.
. Bernard Grad, "The Biological Effects of the 'Laying on of Hands" on Animals and Plants: Implications for Biology," in G. R. Schmeidler (ed.), Parapsychology: Its Relation to Physics, Biology, Psychology and Psychiatry. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1976.
. Daniel P. Wirth, "Unorthodox Healing: The Effect of Noncontact Therapeutic Touch on the Healing Rate of Full Thickness Dermal Wounds," Proceedings of Presented Papers, the Parapsychological Association 32nd Annual Convention, San Diego, August 1989, pp. 251-268.
. Carroll B. Nash and C. S. Nash, "The Effect of Paranormally Conditioned Solution on Yeast Fermentation," Journal of Parapsychology, 31, 1967, 314.
. M. Justa Smith, "Effect of Magnetic Fields on Enzyme Reactivity," in Madeleine F. Barnothy (ed.), Biological Effects of Magnetic Fields. New York: Plenum Press, 1969.
. M. Justa Smith, "The Influence on Enzyme Growth By the 'Laying on of Hands,'" Dimenensions of Healing. Los Altos, California: Academy of Parapsychology and Medicine, 1973.
. Douglas Dean, "The Effects of Healers on Biologically Significant Molecules," New Horizons, 1(5), January 1975, 215-219. This issue contains the Proceedings of the First Canadian Conference on Psychokinesis and Related Phenomena, June 1974.
. Douglas Dean, An Examination of Infra-Red and Ultra-Violet Techniques to Test for Changes in Water Following the Laying-On of Hands. Ph.D. Saybrook Institute, 1983.
. Stephen A. Schwartz, Randall J. De Mattei, Edward G. Brame, Jr., & James P. Spottiswoode, Infrared Spectra Alteration in Water Proximate to the Palms of Therapeutic Practitioners. Final Report. Los Angeles: The Mobius Society, 1986.
. Graham K. Watkins and Anita M. Watkins, "Possible PK Influence on the Resuscitation of Anesthetized Mice," Journal of Parapsychology, 35(4), December 1971, 257-272.
. Graham K. Watkins and Roger Wells, "Linger Effects in Several PK Experiments," Parapsychological Association Convention, Charlottesville, Virginia, 1973.
. Roger Wells and Judith Klein, "A Replication of a 'Psychic Healing' Paradigm," Journal of Parapsychology, 36(2), June 1972, 144-149.
. William Braud and Marilyn Schlitz, "A Methodology for the Objective Study of Transpersonal Imagery," Journal of Scientific Exploration, 3(1), 1989.
. Jean Achterberg, Imagery in Healing. Boston: New Science Library (Shambala), 1985, p. 5.
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